- Define temperature and heat and explain the relationship between the
two. Explain the consequences of heat transfer to or from a system.
- Describe the behavior of ideal gases. Calculate the macroscopic
properties of a gas (pressure, volume, temperature) in terms of the
microscopic properties of its molecules (speed, momentum, kinetic
- State the first law of thermodynamics and apply it to thermodynamic
processes. Explain the first law of thermodynamics in the context of the
principle of the conservation of energy.
- Apply the first law of thermodynamics to use heat to do work and to use
work to move heat. Explain the limitations placed on such processes by
the second law of thermodynamics.
- Describe the types of mechanical waves, define the terms used to
describe mechanical waves, and use the mathematical description of
- Describe interference of waves and show how it leads to standing waves
- Apply the principles of wave motion to sound waves and perform
calculations on sound intensity, beats, and the Doppler effect.
- Describe the nature of light, how it propagates, and how it interacts
with bulk quantities of matter, including reflection, refraction, total
internal reflection, dispersion, and polarization.
- Describe how the reflection and refraction of light determine the action
of mirrors, lenses, and more complex optical instruments.
- Describe the interference of light, and calculate the intensity of light
at various points in an interference pattern.
- Describe diffraction of light, and calculate the intensity of light at
various points in a diffraction pattern for single, double, and multiple